- Dorothy Tangney and Dame Enid Lyons become the first women elected to Federal Parliament.
- Conscription for military service outside Australia is announced by Labor Prime Minister Curtin.
- A Labor election poster states: Great Britain has 4,500,000 men under arms - 10 per cent of its population; By 1944 the USA expects to have 8 per cent of its population under arms; Australia has 800,000 men under arms - or 11.5 per cent of its population.
- About 180,000 United States servicemen are based in Australia.
- United States first lady Eleanor Roosevelt visits Australia.
- Qantas, the British Air Ministry and BOAC re-establish the Australia-England air link that had been cut by advancing Japanese forces.
- Cinematographer Damien Parer wins Australia's first Oscar for his coverage of the war.
- Massacre in Warsaw Ghetto: German troops crush an uprising of Jews. In 1940 more than 300,000 lived in the ghetto behind high walls topped with broken glass and barbed wire, but by 1943 starvation, disease and "resettlement" in concentration camps had taken a severe toll.
- Successful RAF "Dambuster" raids breach the Mohne and Eder Dams in Germany. The Lancaster bombers dropped "bouncing" bombs designed to skim the surface of the water and sink before exploding at the foot of the dam wall.
- Mussolini is overthrown - Allies invade Italy. Italy surrenders unconditionally in September.
- The British Air Ministry, BOAC and Qantas re-establish the England-Australia air link. The flight across the Indian Ocean from Perth, Australia to Sri Lanka sets a new distance record of 5652 kilometres.