- Deakin Government, September 24 (see Australian Prime Ministers)
- Australia is the first nation to give women both the right to vote and the right to stand for parliament.
- The High Court of Australia is established. The first sitting took place in the Banco Court of the Supreme Court building in Melbourne on 6 October. The Bench comprised three distinguished people who had been prominent in the Federal movement. They were The Chief Justice, Sir Samuel Griffith, Sir Edmund Barton and Richard Edward O'Connor.
- Billy Hughes launches a ferocious attack in parliament on the protectionist policies of PM Alfred Deakin. The protectionists believe that tariffs protect Australian jobs and products against cheap imports, encourage secondary industries and provide a means to ensure that the benefits of Australia's world-competitive industries go to the population as a whole.
The Age, 9 May 2001.